Sunday, May 18, 2008

Slokas 99 to 103

Namah Shivaya,

Prostrations at the Lotus feet of AMMA.

Sloka 99:

Meaning: If an ignorant person says that there is prarabdham even after realization.
It will lead to two absurdities. It is will contradict scriptures.

Explanation: we have seen an explanation in the earlier slokas by sankarabhagavdpada , that prarabdham cannot be there for a jeevan mukta. In this sloka he explains the consequences of assuming that prarabdham to be there for jeevan mukta.
We may have a question as to what happens if prarabdham is there for a jeevan mukta, or if a person through analysis draws conclusion that prarabdham is there for jeevan mukta.
This is answered in this sloka.
Considering prarabdham for a realized soul , would lead us to wrong absurd conditions.
If we consider prarabdham for a jeevan mukta , then it means that a person after realization would know Brahman and also have actions to performs i.e prarabdham due to vasanas from previous births. This means a person sees duality after realization. Our scriptures talk about non-duality. As a person having prarabdham karma should exhaust his karma through the body, though mind and intellect. It means he has body, mind and intellect. This means for him all the external objects of the world exist. This proves he is seeing duality everywhere. This hence contradicts the state of scriptures that there is only entity alone.

In aitreya upanishad

Atma Idameka evagra asit naanyat kinchana mishat

Here one entity alone exists and there is no duality whatsoever

In chandogya Upanishad it says

Sadeva soumya idam agra aseet, ekam eva adviteeyam. There is only one entity, that exists one without a second.

So all the scriptural statements will be wrong, If we consider prarabdham to be present for a jeevan mukta.
Another erroneous conclusion that would drawn would be, that a jeevan mutka would perceive many things apart from Brahman. This means that after realization a person has knowledge of Brahman and also external objects. But as per “Mundaka Upanishad “ it is said that “Brahmavid Brahmaiva Bhavati.” .Meaning a person who knows Brahman will become Brahman alone. Meaning he becomes one with everything. If he perceives many objects how can he be Brahman. As he is perceiving duality, how can he exist in a state of non-duality?
Thus there will ambiguous statements drawn , contradicting the scriptures, incase we consider prarabdham to be present for a jeevan mukta.

Sloka 100:

Meaning: I shall teach 15 steps, practicing which one will attain liberation that was mentioned in the earlier slokas.

Explanation: When a student approaches a guru , for knowledge as mentioned in 4th chapter of gita.

tad viddhi pranipatena ,pariprasnena sevaya upadeksyanti te jnanam, jnaninas tattva-darsinah

He does seva for the guru, follows the instructions of the guru and then the Guru imparts him knowledge, about ultimate truth, knowing which there is nothing else to be known.
This is called paroksha jnaanam. Paroksha means indirect. So once a student gets indirect knowledge of the truth from the guru, he strives hard to make it aparoksha Jnaanam meaning , this own intuitive experience. Sankarabhagavadpada till now has provided the paroksha jnaanam of the self, the not self, through various examples, illustrations.

He has explained the sadhana chatustayam a pupil should inculcate inorder to apprehend the truth. His mind gets purified after gaining the said qualification .Only a purified mind can apprehend the truth. With a purified mind a person through discrimination i.e nitya anitya vasthu vivekam , negates the not-self from the self. He understands that world is illusion and through “neti”, “neti” he negates anatman. After that he has to constantly focus on the truth ,which is called niddhidhyasanam. As said in atma bodha.

Parichinna iva ajnaanat, tannashe sati kevalah
Swayam prakashate hi atma, megha apaye anshuman iva

The self seems to be limited due to ignorance, once the clouds of ignorance I removed the sun of atman itself illumines.

We all know that once a person understand or apprehends and implements the import of the statement “Brahma satyam, jagath mithya, jeevo brahmaiva na parah” he will be realized. So till now sankarabhagavad pada has made us understand through lot of analogies “jagath mithya” i.e. world is an illusion .That we are not body and the self is ever present .Only when we develop this strong conviction that names and forms are just illusion in the substratum of Brahman. We are no more deluded by anything in the world. Happiness and sorrow resulting out of our day to day actions will not impact us, as we know that world is temporary so are also the experiences and the only permanent entity is Brahman , of the nature of bliss or poornandam which alone will give us eternal bliss. We will be ever focused in the attaining the state of liberation. Thus a pupil through paroksha jnaanam develops strong conviction about the truth and is ready to strive for aparokshaanubhti. One achieves aparokshaanubhava only through niddhidhyasanam. Thus through the slokas till now, sankarabhagavadpada, makes a student capable enough to have intuitive experience of the self.

So inorder to attain the state of liberation, which has been discussed in earlier slokas, the author is the coming slokas would explain the 15 steps a sadhaka should practice without fail inorder to do niddhidhyasanam and slowly attaining the state of liberation, where contemplation is natural and a person is ever established in atman. Being a very compassion Guru Sankarabhagavadpada, lays down the 15 steps for us for niddhidhyasanam. A person who has strong desire to get liberated this very moment and always be in a state of eternal bliss, would ardently follow the steps prescribed by him.

Sloka 101 :

Meaning: If not practiced constantly, one cannot attains the state of Brahman. Hence a sadhaka should always do niddhidhyasanam.

Explanation: The spiritual path consists of 3 steps. Sravanam, mananam and nidhhidhyasanam. Initially when a student approaches the guru, the guru teaches him. Thus a student listens about Brahman from the Guru. This is called sravanam. After that the student, analysis whatever he has learnt, using his own intellect. This is called mananam. Through mananam a person’s intellect becomes strong. All his doubts of world being an illusion are removed. His conviction of Brahman being the only truth becomes stronger. Thus mananam prepares the ground for nidhhidhyasanam. So once the person is completely convinced of the truth, inorder to realize whatever he believes in, he should constant contemplation as Krishna says in 4th chapter.

sraddhavan labhate jnanam , tat-parah samyatendriyah jnanam labdhva param santim ,acirenadhigacchati
A person who has faith attains the knowledge and after subduing the senses, attains the state of liberation.
He also says
na hi jnanena sadrsam ,pavitram iha vidyate tat svayam yoga-samsiddhah ,kalenatmani vindati
There is nothing more pure than self knowledge in this world. One who has this knowledge in due course of time attains the self.
So having attained the knowledge , to get aparokshaanubhuti which is the main purpose of this work, sankarabhagavadpada says one should constantly contemplate on the truth of “Brahma satyam, jagath mithya” . Always ascertaining himself that Brahman alone exists here , one without a second and there is nothing whatsoever .
As mentioned by Krishna in 12th chapter
mayy avesya mano ye mam ,nitya-yukta upasate sraddhaya parayopetas ,te me yuktatama matah

A person whose mind Is always fixed in me, Who is always steadfast in me, He is considered to be perfect by me.
He also says thus
Mayy eva mana adhatsva, mayi buddhim nivesaya nivasisyasi mayy eva ,ata urdhvam na samsayah
Always fix your mind me, engage all your activites in me. Thus u will ever be in me.
Thus we should always , through all actions contemplate on the ultimate truth. Whatever actions we do we should offer it the lord .This is niddhidhyasanam.
As Krishna says in 9th chapter
yat karosi yad asnasi ,yaj juhosi dadasi yat yat tapasyasi kaunteya, tat kurusva mad-arpanam
Do all activities as an offering to me and thereby make your mind always fixed onto me.
From the next sloka , the author explains the steps , to be followed to attain moksha in this very birth.

Sloka 102 & 103:

Meaning: Yama, Niyama, tyaga, mounam,desha,Kala, aasan,mulabandha, dehasamya, driksthiti
Pranasamyama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyanam, Samadhi are the successive steps.
Explanation: Being a compassionate Guru, sanakarabhagavadpada mentions 10 steps in this slokas. When we see a jeevan mukta, ever blissful, no matter in whatever situation he is in .He always rejoices as said in bhajagovindam as “nandati nandati nandati eva” . We may be awestruck, how/he she has attained such a state. We would be wondering, whether we shall ever be in that state of eternal bliss. To answer all these questions , the author lays down the path to be tread for niddhidhyasanam. If anyone follows these steps sincerely, one help in constant contemplation. The jeevan muktas, who impart this knowledge to us, themselves are the testimony to the truth, if anyone follows the steps , they will attain moksha this very birth.
All the steps mentioned here by sankarabhagavadpada in the coming slokas are terms commonly used in yoga sastra or patanjali astanga yoga like yama, niyama etc. But the steps mentioned here by the author are completely different to the astanga yoga. The astanga yoga by patanjali, emphasizes on controlling the body, prana etc. But as per advaita Vedanta, the focus is on Brahman and not the body, as the atman is the only reality. So through all these 8 sadhanas one tries to get focus on Brahman inorder to do niddhidhyasanam.
Before we discuss the 10 steps mentioned in this path, We should know that sankarabhagavadpada angas are different from what was preached by panini. We shall try to understand how each anga is different from the astanga yoga in coming slokas.
So the 15 steps sankarabhagavadpada spoke about here are.
1) Yama – control of sense organs. 2) Niyama –control of mind 3) tyagam – renunciation 4) mounam – silence 5) deshah – space 6) kalam – time 7) asanam – posture 8) mula bandham – controlling anus 9)deha-samya – holding steady body 10) drksthitih – steadiness of gaze 11) pranasamyama – controlling prana 12) pratyahara – withdrawal of mind 13) dharana – continuous reflection 14) atma dhyanam – contemplation 15) samadhi – total absorption.
Seven out of the 15 steps mentioned seem similar to astanga yoga. But we need to remember here that , the author’s explanation of the implementation for nidhhidhyasanam is different to the yoga sadhana’s.
So in the coming slokas we shall see each of the steps of niddhidhyasanam being explained by the author in detail.

Namah Shivaya

Slokas 94 to 98

Namah Shivaya,

Prostrations at the lotus feet of AMMA.

Sloka 94:

Meaning: Material cause of the world is ignorance and the material cause of the pot is mud, this is as per Vedanta. When the ignorance is destroyed the world is no more seen.

Explanation: Sankarabhagavadpada has explained through logic that world Is just an illusion and substratum of the world is Brahman. He also explained through logic how one is not the body but the atman. Through many illustrations he explained , How due to ignorance one considers himself to be the body.
He gave the avasta traya analysis to show that the world we see only is illusion as the sleep state and for a person who has realized there are no actions to be performed. He explained how there is no prarabdham for a realized person, even though scriptures say so.
Explaining the perspective vision one should have to understand the right import of the scripture text.

In this sloka he explains that ignorance is the cause of the world. Till now we have see that the cause of the world is Brahman ,in which everything is created, lies and is destroyed and there is nothing else apart from him. So we may have a question that what ever is stated here is just contradicting whatever was stated earlier in the slokas. But Brahman the substratum of the world is at a vyavaharika level. Saying that ignorance is the cause of the world is at a paaramaarthika level. Once the ignorance is destroyed no world is seen. So there is no world only one entity brahman is present. This is what will be concluded at a paaramaarthika level.

We perceive the world of various forms, we see sufferings in the world, good and bad.All this duality perceived is due to the body, mind intellect. The thoughts in the mind are due to the past experiences. Mind and intellect are due to the vasanas in the previous birth which were carried to this birth. Based on these past vasanas we develop new vasanas. Our likes and dislikes are based on this. Our actions are propelled by the desires due to the vasanas. If there were no vasanas, there would be no likes and dislikes no activities to be performed for enjoying anything. There by there is no world created. If we have the knowledge that everything is one entity alone, and there is nothing apart from that entity. If we perceive everything as one, we don’t see any differences, hence there cannot be raga dvesham i.e attachments and aversions. This will lead to destruction of mind, as there is only one entity what to think about.
Thus due to the vasanas of the previous births , due to the mind intellect we perceive and create the world. Once we see only Brahman everywhere, there is prarabdham for the person. No duty, no actions to be performed.

So as the mud pot is made of mud alone, so also the only due to ignorance the world is seen. Only the ignorance completely vanishes , the world disappears. The same thing is said beautifully in atma bodha by sanakarabhagavadpada thus

Parichinna eva ajnanat, tannashe sati kevalah
Swayam prakashate hi atma , meghapaye amsumaniva

The individual seems to be limited due to ignorance, only on destruction of which the self shines. As when the clouds covering the sun pass away the sun shines, so also when the veil of ignorance is removed the atman in all shines. This is the state of realized person.

Sloka 95:

Meaning: If we forget the rope, the snake is seen due to illusion, do also, due to ignorance the world is seen.

Explanation: The author continues the explanation of why the and how the world is seen .In the earlier sloka he mentioned that it is due to ignorance, the same is presented in a different way.

Due to illusion a person sees a rope and thinks it to be a snake. This illusive perception causes fear and suffering in him. The improper vision is due to the improper knowledge of the object. Due to the improper vision he suffers.
Similarly due to ignorance , due to lack of knowledge of the world and its true nature a person gets deluded to thinks that the world is permanent and would give happiness always. He searches for happiness in the world, forgetting that the happiness lies within him. He doesn’t understand that the world is an illusion in the substratum of Brahman. Forgetting this truth will lead him to sufferings in this impermanent world.
He thinks he is the body, mind and intellect, he doesn’t consider himself to be the all pervading atman. Brahman is the illuminating power behind the intellect and mind. He is alone true and our very nature. It is thus said in nirvanamanjari

Yadaaseeth vilaasth vikaaram, jagad vikarashrayam , naadviteeyayam ,syaath
Mano buddhi chitta ahamkara vrithim ,pravrittih yatah syaath tad eva aham asmi

The play of the world full of modifications , si not because of me as I am one entity only.
I am the illuminating factor behind mind,intellect and memory. I am behind all actions.

Hence the body, mind and intellect are but illusions .Once we are out these illusions created by the illusory mind and intellect. Mind gets destroyed our ego gets destroyed and we ever get established in Brahman. This is the state to be aspired for.
So as long as we are suffering due to the ignorance of the mind and intellect. We shall always perceive the world.

Sloka 96:

Meaning: Once knowing that it is rope, we do not see snake in it. Once we know that Brahman is the substratum, the world ceases to exist for us.

Explanation: Sankarabhagavadpada continues the explanation ,where explains how a person can get rid of the vision of the world of duality. How he can perceive oneness everywhere. Earlier he said that ignorance is the cause and as we see snake in the rope so also world is seen in Brahman.
In this sloka he explains how we can get rid of the vision of the world.

Initially a person might see a snake in the rope, but when someone shows him that it is rope alone and he neednt be frightened, he views it again and sees that infact it was rope alone all the time and that he was perceiving it as rope due to wrong vision.
Due to the dualities we perceive in the world we are suffering. We see each and every person different from us. We develop likes and dislikes because of that. This will result in emotions and attachments in the mind. We start analyzing, reasoning , which will finally lead us to sorrow. All these thoughts and emotions , due to past vasanas make us do lot of actions.
This wrong vision only can erased by the knowledge of the self. As atma bodha beautifully puts it as

Avirodhitaya karma, na avidhyam vinivartayet
Vidhya avidhyam nihantyeva tejas timira sanghavat

Ignorance cannot be removed by actions as actions are not the opposite of ignorance.
With knowledge alone the ignorance is removed. As light dispels darkness.

So only through knowledge a person would learn that the world is just an illusion. In due course of time would realize. As Lord Krishna says in 4th chapter.
na hi jnanena sadrsam ,pavitram iha vidyate tat svayam yoga-samsiddhah ,kalenatmani vindati
A realized person sees only his self in all and all in his self. He cannot see anything apart from himself. So what action to perform?. Hence he has no prarabdham. How can he have prarabdham, when he has identified himself with the self and gone beyond birth and death as Krishna says in 4th chapter.
ajo 'pi sann avyayatma ,bhutanam isvaro 'pi san prakrtim svam adhisthaya ,sambhavamy atma-mayaya
I am unborn , cannot be destroyed ,I am the lord of all beings ,I take birth many times out of my own maya.

So for a person who is unborn , how can he have births? ,if he cannot have births , how can he have prarabdham?

Sloka 97:

Meaning: This body which is a part of the universe , how can there be prarabdham? Its only for ignorant people prarabdham is spoken about.

Explanation: In the earlier few slokas sankarabhagavadpada has mentioned , how a person sees the world and how can he get rid of the illusory vision of the world. It has also be proved that there cannot be any prarabdham for a jeevan muktha.
In this sloka he explains why scriptures mention that prarabdham is present for a jeevan mukta.
The world as we have seen in the earlier slokas is due to created by the perceiver, as a dream world is created and is in the dreamer, so also the world in the jagrat avasta or awaken state. This creation is due to we considering ourselves to be the body, mind, intellect due to which lot of disturbances, impressions the mind and intellect goes through thus the world is created. From a jnaani’s perspective, everything is one. There is one Brahman alone present in everything. Thus vanishing of the body mind complex the world itself vanishing as mentioned in earlier sloka.
For a person who has attained a state where he is a witness to all, he doesn’t have a body, how can there be world and prarabdham?

Shruthi explains that prarabdham is present for a jnaani from an ignorant person’s perspective. A ignorant person , who cannot apprehend the state of jeevan mukta , wouldn’t understand that there is no prarabdham. He sees the jeevan muktha doing actions as any other worldly person, so he cannot understand and apprehend his actions.
If a 1st standard student is taught the concept of 10th standard , then he will not understand. Slowly he moves from one class to another and reaches 10th. So to systematically take the student from an initial state to final, shruthi says thus.
If a student is told initially that there is only prarabdham for a jeevan mukta and that doesn’t matter as he remains unaffected and blissful in all circumstances, he will be able to accept it and proceed towards the direction. Once he realizes he himself understands that there is no prarabdham.

Sloka 98:

Meaning: All the actions will fall off , for a person who has no vision of duality , who is ever established in atman and sees it all pervading, this is as per scriptures .

Explanation: We have seen that sankaracharya mentions that prarabdham is not there for realized people, and its only for ignorant people to understand, scriptures say that prarabdham is present for a jeevan mukta. In this sloka he supports its statements through some of the scriptural statements.
This sloka is similar to one in Mundaka Upanishad which goes like this.
Bidhyanti hridaya granthi, Chidyanthe sarva samshayaha
Ksheenatecha asya karman,Tasmin driste para avare
He who is ever established in the atman , he sees everything is Brahman, for him ,the knot at the heart is broken, all the doubts are cleared and Actions reduce slowly.
There are 3 knots along the shad chakras along the spine. Brahman granthi, Vishu granthi and rudra granthi. Brahma granthi is located at mulaadhara and it represents actions such as sexual activities. Vishnu granthi is at the heart, which represents desires. Rudra granthi is present in the mind , where ignorance resides.
For a jeevan mukta all the knots are broken. For an ignorant person his actions are driven by desires and ignorance. But for a jeevan mukta , there is no ignorance. He is the knower of the truth. “Brahma satyam jagath mithya, jeevo bramhaiva na parahah “ . Hence he has no desires and no actions to be performed. He is the self, beyond birth and death.
Though a jeevan mukta is seen as performing actions in the world, he has no actions to perform as he is unborn, has no desires and hence he cannot do any actions.

Namah Shivaya

Slokas 89 to 93

Namah Shivaya,

Prostration at the Lotus feet of AMMA.

Sloka 89 :

aatmaanaa.n satata.n jaanankaala.n naya mahaadyute .
praarabdhamakhilaM bhuJNjannodvega.n kartumaha.rsi

Meaning: Contemplate on the atman or Brahman all the time and exhaust all the praradha karma , one neednt be anxious about it.

Explantion: Sankarabhagavatpada has said that the body cannot be the atman, till now. He said that its only due to ignorance that we consider ourselves to be the body.

In the next 5 slokas he enters into a different subject of praradham for a person who has realized himself. He puts forth logic and analysis to explain about the prarabdham of a jnaani after realization.

In this sloka he explains that to always abide in the state of Brahman , which gives us eternal bliss in contrast to the wordly objects which are temporary, a person should constantly contemplate on Brahman. In due course of time he naturally contemplates on Brahman and becomes self-realized. Such a person after realization , has to exhaust all his prarabdha karmas . He is in a state where he perceives oneness everywhere, hence there is nothing to be liked or disliked or be effected, so no matter what ever good or bad he has to face as a result of the prarabdham , he accepts everything with a smile. Nothing deters him , as he ever established in Brahman. This is the state of a jnaani. He remains unaffected by the activities performed. He offers all the fruits of action to the lord. Thus lord Krishna says thus in gita 4th chapter

tyaktva karma-phalasangam ,nitya-trpto nirasrayah karmany abhipravrtto 'pi ,naiva kincit karoti sa

Thus a jnaani does all actions but does not enjoy the fruits of actions.
There are 3 types of karmas sanchita, prarabdha and agami karmas. Sanchita karma is the fruits of the past deeds that we have accumulated from previous births. Part of this sanchita karma gets fruitified and becomes prarabdha karma, the fruits of which we enjoy in the current birth. Agaami karma is the results of our actions in this current birth.
When a person realizes all his sanchita and agami karmas are burnt like the wood in fire. He has just the prarabdha karma , that he has to face in the current birth. Prarabdha karma is said to be like a arrow that is released from the bow, which cannot be taken back. Thus it needs to be exhausted. Lord Krishna says thus in gita 4th chapter about karmas of the jnaani’s getting burnt.

36 sloka

yathaidhamsi samiddho 'gnir bhasmasat kurute 'rjuna jnanagnih sarva-karmani bhasmasat kurute tatha

Thus sankarabhagavatpada says that a jnaani would exhaust all his prarabdha karmas and leaves the body and become one with Brahman.

Sloka 90:

utpanne.apyatmaviGYaane praarabdha.n naiva muJNchati .
iti yachchhR^Iyate shaastre tanniraakriyate.adhunaa

Meaning: After getting the knowledge of the atman, prarabdham doesn’t vanish. This is what is said by the scriptures and I am going to refute this.

Explanation: Sanakarabhagavatpada has explained in the earlier sloka that prarabdham is exhausted by the jnaani ones he realizes. He just maintains the body in order to undergo all the prarabdha karmas. Now in this sloka sanakarabhagavatpada says that he refutes the opinion of the scriptures which say that prarabdham is present for jnaani.

Once a person attains the state of realization, his sanchita and agami karmas which we have seen in the earlier sloka vanish . But the prarabdham remains behind is what the scriptures proclaim. Here we have to understand that the author is not going against the scriptures, as he himself is an embodiment of the scriptures. He is trying to give the right perspective of what the scriptures have said and why is it mentioned so in the scriptures.

An ignorant person sees water in a desert and thinks it is real. Even though it is desert only and nothing else. Similarly the world is seen as real by an ajnaani. A jnaani knows that the water in the desert is unreal, he knows that it’s the desert that’s present and nothing else. Similarly the jnaani sees the world as pervaded by Brahman alone and nothing else. The ignorant person has wrong vision of the world. So the scriptures are for an ignorant person , to know the truth. A jnaani already knows the truth , hence he doesn’t need any scriptural study. So the scriptures talk from an ajnaani perspective to explain him the world and its nature. So as the ajnaani sees a jnaani working in the world , he questions about the prarabdha karma of a jnaani. So in order for him to grasp things ,scriptures says that prarabdham would exist for a jnaani too, but he isn’t effected by any, hence it doesn’t matter what he does or he suffers due to prarabdham. Only when the sadhaka realizes would he understand that there can be no prarabdham for jnanni who always sees nothing else here but Brahman alone.

As aitreya Upanishad says

Atma Idameka evagra asit naanyat kinchana mishat

So sanakarabhagavatpada in the next few slokas gives logical explanation for the same.

Sloka 91:

tattvaGYaanodayaaduurdhvaM praarabdha.n naiva vidyate .
dehaadiinaamasattvattu yathaa svapno vibodhataH

Meaning: After attaining the knowledge of the self, prarabdham is not there, as its dependent on body , like in a dream.

Explanation: Here the author though logic tries to prove how a jnaani has no prarabdham. To perform any action or enjoy fruits of action body is the medium.
Jnaani is ever established in the state of Brahman and hence there is not birth and death for him. He has gone beyond all dualities, but for an ajnaani who sees a jnaani or mahatmas like AMMA doing activities in the world, he may doubt about the prarabdha karma for them. Hence sankarabhagavatpada explains it.
As karmas need a body and a jnaani has no body , so it is said that he has no prarabdha karma. It is similar to a dream state. In dream state we have all experiences and we think its real, we do not know that we are dreaming until we come out of it. Once we comes out of , we understand that it’s a dream and we are not effected by it. In dream state all the experiences of the dreamer are on the body in the dream state. But once the dreamer wakes up, he doesn’t have dream body.
An ignorant person perceives the world as real and hence identifies himself with all activities. A jnaani knows that world is like a dream , hence there are no actions for him to perform.
We may see mahatmas appear in our dream and as doing activities, it is similar to seeing them doing activities in the world . As the dream is just an illusion so also the world. Until we are in the dream world , we cannot understand that state attains which no actions are performed anymore. Lord Krishna says thus in 4th chapter of gita that a jnaani doesn’t do any actions.
tyaktva karma-phalasangam ,nitya-trpto nirasrayah karmany abhipravrtto 'pi , naiva kincit karoti sah
Thus through logical analysis that without a body actions and after waking from a dream there is no dream body so also actions cannot be performed by jnaani thus its proved by the author that there is no prarabdham for a jnaani. He gives some more ways of explaining the same in the next 2 slokas.

Sloka 92:
karma janmaantariiya.n yatpraarabdhamiti kiirtitam.h .
tattu janmaantaraabhaavaatpu.nso naivaasti kahi.rchit.h

Meaning: Actions are due to previous births. This is called prarabdham. But there are no previous births , such things do not exist.
Explanation: Prarabdham is the fruits of past actions, which drive our current birth. The place we are born, to whom we are born and the life we live is all determined by the parabdham. Prarabdham is due to the previous birth vasanas we have accumulated. So through the medium of the body all this vasanas are exhausted. But a jnaani is a person who doesn’t consider himself to be the body as we have seen in the earlier slokas. He has no body. He is unborn. He is ever present as lord Krishna says in the 4th chapter
ajo 'pi sann avyayatma ,bhutanam isvaro 'pi san prakrtim svam adhisthaya ,sambhavamy atma-mayaya
I am unborn and all pervading and present in all being in the world and appear in the world through my own maya.

For a person who is unborn ever present how can there be previous and next births?, If all the previous births are not there , then how can he have karma. This is the argument sankarabhagavtpada puts forth in this sloka. One a person realizes and knows that he is the ever present all pervading Brahman ,who is unborn, all his karmas of sanchita and agami are burnt away as we have seen in the earlier slokas. He goes beyond all his births.
Hence he has not previous births and no karmas. So can we say that he is performing actions?.He doesn’t see any duality whatsoever.

So when archarya’s say in works like tattvabodha that prarabdham exists for a jnaani, then we need to understand that its from the perspective of an ignorant person.

Sloka 93:

svapnadeho yathaadhyasthastathaivaaya.n hi dehakaH .
adhyastasya kuto janma janmaabhaave hi tatkutaH

Meaning: As the dream body is superimposed in the dreamer , so also waking state body is just a superimposition and not real.

Explanation: Sankarabhagavatpada gives another logic here to prove that there is no prarabdham for a jnaani.

The dreamer experiences all dream through a dream body. The whole dream is in the dreamer. This is called superimposition. Dream body is superimposed on the dreamer. The dream body is not real it vanishes once he is out of dream. Dreamer is the cause of the dream ,the dream exists and vanishes in him. Hence it is just an illusion.

As the dream world vanishes once we are out of dream, so also once we realize that the world is just a dream, when we realize. As the dream body doesn’t exist in waking state, so also a jnaani is never associated with the body which was just a superimposition.
Until one has body, he has previous births and karmas. Then he would suffer due to the vasanas accumulated over the births.Once he is above the body, he has no karmas and is a liberated soul.

Until we know that the water seen in the desert is just an illusion, we will get deluded and suffer. But once we understand that the water is just an illusion and the desert is the only truth , we are not effected. So a jnaani knows that world is pervaded by Brahman alone and that world is illusion, hence for him there is no body, no pervious births and no prarabdha karma too.

They are just the witness of all the actions , they are not the doer or the enjoyer of action . As lord Krishna says in 15th chapter

yad aditya-gatam tejo , jagad bhasayate 'khilam yac candramasi yac cagnau ,tat tejo viddhi mamakam
He is the light behind all lights, he is the illuminator,but is just a witness to all activities and is not inlvolved in any activities.
So also a jnaani remains as a witness to all activities in the world, always remaining in blissful state. Everything he accepts as a blessing from eshwara and hence there are no actions performed by him.
Thus sankarabhagavatpada through three different reasonings proves that there is no prarabdham for a jnaani, even though the scriptures say so. It is explain thus in scriptures only from an ignorant persons perspective. Thus he concludes the subject of prarabdha for a jnaani.

Namaha Shivaya

Slokas 84 to 88

Namah Shivaya,

Prostrations at the Lotus feet of AMMA.

Sloka 84:

abhreshhu satsu dhaavatsu somo dhaavati bhaati vai .
tadvadaatmani dehatvaM pashyatyaGYaanayogataH ..

Meaning: The moon behind the passing cloud seems to be moving. Similarly the same way an ignorant person consider the atman as the body.

Explanation: Sankarabhagavatpada is explaining through various analogies, how a person mistakes his body to be the atman.
Under a beautiful moonlit sky with clouds , when the clouds play hide and seek with the moon, If one concentrates on the clouds, then one feels that the moon is moving and that the clouds are stationary. Incase one is observing the moon, one can feel that the clouds are moving and the moon is stationary.
Similarly if one concentrates on his body, mind and intellect. He feels he is the body ,mind and intellect. If he considers himself to be the self, beyond body, mind and intellect, self which is a witness to all activities, he realizes himself.
Identifying himself with the body mind complex a person is suffering in the world. He thinks he is limited by the body. He thinks he has no existence after death and that death is the end .Thus he also perceives duality in the world. He suffers due to the desires, bondages due to perceiving the duality.
Once he realizes that he is not the body ,mind or intellect and nothing else exists here except Brahman and that he is that and the naama roopam we see in the world is nothing but Brahman alone ,then he always rejoices in bliss. All duality vanishes and he sees himself in all and all in himself.
Due to superimposition of the self over the not self, a person due to ignorance of the nature of the self , considers himself to be the self. Once this veil of ignorance is removed, the true self reveals to him.
Thus a person having an understanding through scriptural studies that he is not the body,mind or intellect, slowly through practice ascertains himself that he is the self, then the self would reveal himself .
Lord Krishna says thus in Gita
na hi jnaanena sadrisham pavithram iha vidhyathe, tat svayam yoga samsiddhaha kaalena atmani vindhathi
A person who is established in the path of knowledge will realize himself in due course of time.

Sloka 85:

yathaiva digviparyaaso mohaadbhavati kasyachit.h .
tadvadaatmani dehatvaM pashyatyaGYaanayogataH

Meaning: When there are two ways to take, a person gets confused due to ignorance. Similarly the same way an ignorant person considers the atman as the body.

Explanation: In this sloka sankarabhagavatpada talks about how ignorance creates confusion in the mind. Only when the intellect is totally convinced would all doubts get cleared and a person would be out of confusion. A clear mind can express its thoughts well.As long as ignorance exists, the mind would be in turmoil all the time.
The same thing is emphasized in the sloka. In life we may face situation where we have to make a choice . We have to choose which path to take . Those could be the incidents which bring changes in our life completely. One should take decisions cautiously, using his intellect and shouldn’t be overpowered by emotions. But lack of understanding of the nature of the world a person takes wrong steps. He doesn’t even understand that he lacks the knowledge needed to take right decisions.
A person is deluded by the desires , attachments in this world and his decisions are influenced by likes and dislikes. He doesn’t make a decision, being a witness to the situation. His individual ego identifies with the situation and this hampers him to take the right decision.
Even the ignorance of the self, makes a person think that he is the body ,mind and intellect .He takes a wrong path, goes in a wrong direction and thinks that atman is the body. Having the knowledge of the ultimate truth, that Brahman alone exists here and we are that, would help him to take the right step for self realization.

Sloka 86:

yathaa shashii jale bhaati chaJNchalatvena kasyachit.h .
tadvadaatmani dehatvaM pashyatyaGYaanayogataH

Meaning : As the reflection of the moon seen in water appears to be moving. Similarly the same way an ignorant person considers the atman as the body

Explanation : Sanakarabhagavatpada gives another analogy here of moon seen in water.

The reflection of the moon in a pond or river is moving, because of the waves present in the water body. So the reflection falls on the waves and it also seems to be moving.
The moon is not moving, but for a viewer who sees the reflection , it looks like moon is moving. The real moon is not the moon seen in the water. The moon seen in the water looks exactly the same as the actual moon , but it is just a reflection and hence illusion.

Similarly the sense organs are active only due to the presence of the atman. This creates an illusion in our mind due to the ignorance of the true nature of the self, that atman is our body. But atman is in whose presence activities happens. It is the light behind lights.

As Krishna says in Gita 15th chapter
yat aditya gatam tejo, jagat bhasayithee akhilam
Yat Chandramasi yat cha agnau tat tejo viddhi mamakam

Neither the moon nor the sun nor the fire shine, I alone shine and am the illuminating factor behind them.

As the moon is stationary and is different from the water body and is not associated with the reflection or water, so also the atman is a witness to all activities of the jeeva. Atman is not involved in any activity , but which supports all activities.
Due to ignorance of the moon as just an reflection makes us feel that moon is moving. So also ignorance of the self makes us think that body is the atman. As reflection is just an illusion , so also the body mind complex is just an illusion.
As moon is not tainted by the waterbody , so also atman remains untainted by the activities performed by the person.

Thus sankarabhagavatpada through this beautiful analogy brings out the nature of the atman and how an ignorant person perception of the atman is wrong.

Sloka 87:

evamaatmanyavidyaato dehaadhyaaso hi jaayate
sa evaatmapariGYaanaalliiyate cha param.h

Meaning : As seen atman is considered the body due to ignorance . Through knowledge the nature of the self , ignorance is removed .

Explanation: Sanakarabhagavatpada in the earlier 11 slokas through various analogies had explained how the body is considered to be the atman.
In this sloka he says that due to ignorance the atman is considered the body. As we know that due to superimposition of the non-self over the self, the person considers himself to be the body. This is known as adhyaasam or superimposition. The cause of the adhyaasam is ignorance of the nature of self. Considering the atman to be the body due to ignorance , a person perceives duality in the world and end up in sorrows. He suffers due to the likes and dislikes he faces in the world as a result of this. Thus ignorance of his true nature makes him suffer in the world.
After attaining the knowledge that he is of the nature of sat chit ananda, that is of the nature of eternal bliss ignorance vanishes and the person remains ever blissful. This is the state to be aspired by us. Wherein the external environment doesn’t effect us. We are not seeking happiness from the world . We rejoice in our inner state of bliss, irrespective of the worst circumstances we might be in. This is the state of a jeevan mukta, who is liberated. He is liberated from all sorrows from the world. He ever rejoices in eternal bliss.

Thus author says that due to superimposition which happens due to ignorance of the nature of the self, an individual suffers in the world. Only through self knowledge would the ignorance vanish and brings in him peace.

Sloka 88:

sarvamaatmatayaa GYaata.n jagatsthaavarajaN^gamam.h .
abhaavaatsarvabhaavaanaa.n dehasya chaatmanaa kutaH

Meaning: Knowing that moving and immoving objects in the world are Brahman alone, all the dual notions of body will vanish and how can he then consider himself to be the body.

Explanation: Sankarabhagavatpada has explained in the earlier sloka that only through knowledge of the self would a person realize his true self and be liberated from the ocean of samsaara. In this sloka he explains how knowledge helps in removal of the notions.

World can be basically said to be having naama roopam and substratum of Brahman.
Naama roopam of body is just an illusion .We have seen this in the analogies. Brahman alone is the reality and the naama roopam of the world is just an illusion in it.
When knowledge that atman alone is present as the substratum of the moving and unmoving entities in the world, then be doesn’t see any duality, he doesn’t himself to be different from others. He sees himself in everything.
So all the notions of the body mind complex are removed. If atman is the only reality and body mind complex an illusion , then how can person consider himself to be body mind complex?...Thus understanding the truth his body notion vanishes.

Lord Krishna says in Gita 15th chapter

mama eva amsah jeeva loke jeeva bhutah sanatanahah
Manah sasthani indriyani prakrithi sthani karshati

I am the indwelling self in all. Each individual is part of me.

So we have seen how the author has earlier through analogies proved how a person considers himself to be the body. He also instructs as to how to come out of the notion of the atman to be the body.

Namah shivaya

Slokas 79 to 83

Hari Aum,

Prostrations at the Lotus feet of AMMA.

Sloka 79:

alaataM bhramaNaiva vartulaM bhaati suuryavat.h .
tadvadaatmani dehatvaM pashyatyaGYaanayogataH

Meaning: A ball of fire on rotation appears to be like a sun. In the same way an ignorant person consider the atman as the body.

Explanation: Using some of the observations ,experiences of the external objects we make in life, the author brings out beautifully the vedantic perspective , to prove that a human being is also deluded in a similar fashion to assume his body to be atman.

In circus , a person performing the tricks with a wire or string having a ball of fire at one end winds the string in a circular fashion, after sometime , we do not see the string anymore but a ring of fire is seen, though there it is only a string having fire at one end.
Thus an illusion of a ring of fire similar to the sun is created.

Due to the daily experiences in our life, we are thinking that happiness we get is present in the outside world. But objects of the world are temporary and ever changing, hence we can get only sorrow from them. Also we seek that temporary happiness which is nothing but from the atman, instead of seeking the atman our own self for poorna anandam or eternal bliss. That which is nature of bliss can give bliss.The wife is loved by the husband, for the sake of his self. He loves his wife, because he is happy if he does so. Ultimately its his happiness he is seeking , due to which he loves his wife. Thus indirectly everyone is deriving happiness from oneself alone, though seeking objects in external world.
Thus because of our ignorance of the nature of the atman of sat chit ananda , of the nature of consciousness, existence and eternal bliss, We consider that the happiness we get from performing activities in the world , is because of the objects in the world. Everything in the world is pervaded by Brahman alone in this world.
Thus we get deluded to think that the body is permanent, the objects of the world are permanent and would give immense happiness, on the contrary only atman which is all pervading , ever existence permanent entity can alone give eternal bliss.

Thus sankaracharya through this beautiful illustration of a fireball brings out the illusion created in our minds about the body being the atman.

Sloka 80:
mahattve sarvavastuunamaNutva.n hyatiduurataH .
tadvadaatmani dehatvaM pashyatyaGYaanayogataH

Meaning: Big objects also look very small if seen from a great distance. In the same way an ignorant person consider the atman as the body.

Explanation: Here the author gives another illustration of distant objects appearing small in size, to explain how a person perceives his body as atman.

From a distance we might see a big mountain to be of a small size. We can see the mountain peak also. When we go near to it, it appears very huge and we wont be able to see the top of the mountain too. Also sometimes the clouds may cover the mountain and make it appear as to be of less height. These are all illusions of space and time. Once we go near or once the clouds disperse we get the real vision of the mountain. Until then our vision of the mountain or the opinion we have about it is wrong. So we cannot judge something just by looking at it. These may be lot of delusions involved of distance and time like as we have seen in the case of mountain.
So also our vision of the atman hampered by our ignorance. Due to the superimposition of the body over the self, we are considering the body to be the self. Since our birth we have been living with the thought that we are the body. The strong impressions in our mind that are created as a result of this ignorance veil the atman from us. To get the real vision of the atman, we should come out this superimposition, to realize the truth. As going near to the mountain we can apprehend how a mountain looks like, similarly reiterating ourselves that we are not the body, mind complex, we will realize ourselves.
The clouds of our ignorance veil the atman to us. Thus when the light of knowledge dawns , the clouds of ignorance get cleared and our true nature of self is revealed.
For this to happen, one should have strong conviction that he is the self not the body. This builds the strong desire in him to realize the truth, hence he takes steps in that direction to get self –realization.

Thus sankaracharya through this illustration of the delusions happening due to ignorance brings out clearly how a person considers himself to be the body.

Sloka 81 :

suukshnatve sarvabhaavaanaa.n sthuulatva.n chopanetrataH .
tadvadaatmani dehatvaM pashyatyaGYaanayogataH

Meaning: All minute organisms can be seen as gross organisms through a microscope. In the same way an ignorant person consider the atman as the body.

Explanation: Earlier author has given example observing objects from far, now he gives example of observing through the microscope here to explain how the body is considered as the atman.

A minute organism when observed through a microscope, appears big, we see the distortion of the size of the organism. Also in order to observe it clearly some pigments are added to it. Thus in order to study it, its size is magnified and pigments added. A person who is observing the same has the knowledge that the color of the pigment is not the color of the organism. He also keeps in mind the size of the organism even though it appears big under a microscope.
The world is viewed , due to the presence of atman. Atman illumines the sense organs , which seek out objects in the world. As sun is the witness to all activities in the world but is not involved in it. So also atman illuminates the sense organs , with the help of which they perform activities. Thus atman alone is responsible for perceiving objects in the world. As we are ignorant of the nature of the self, we view the body to be the atman. Even though the object appears big under the microscope doesn’t mean it is big, so also though the body is considered to be the atman, it is not the atman. The distortions seen in the object of observance is similar to the distortions of the atman seen through the mind body complex. This leads a person to think that he is the atman.
Atman is beyond mind and intellect .It said to be “Mano vacham agocharam” in lalitha sahasranama. Meaning it’s beyond perception of body and mind.

As right vision of the object cannot be obtained, without distortions while viewing through the microscope, so also atman cannot be realized through the mind and intellect.

Sloka 82:

kaachabhuumau jalatva.n vaa jalabhuumau hi kaachataa .
tadvadaatmani dehatvaM pashyatyaGYaanayogataH

Meaning: A glass sheet might appear to be water and water might appear to be a glass sheet. In the same way an ignorant person consider the atman as the body.

Explanation: In this sloka author talks about how through ignorance one is fooled to consider himself to be the body.

A glass sheet at a glance might appear to be water, so also water in dim light might appear to be glass sheet. Thus when observed in a hasty fashion, we get wrong vision of objects in the world. One should enquire into the true nature of the objects seen, rather than jumping to conclusions. As the famous saying goes, “All that glitters is not gold”. So also all that appears as water may not be water but can be only a glass sheet.
We are considering ourselves to be the body. This assumption is made without proper though about why and how we considered ourselves to be the body. We are so busy with our daily chores , that we have time to sit in silence and think who we really are. Without this proper enquiry into ourselves, we consider ourselves to be the body. This is due to ignorance of our true nature. The ignorance veils makes us think that we are the body.
Only through understanding and knowing the truth from the mahavakyam
“ Brahma satyam jagath mithya jeevo brahamaiva na parah “ This is stated by sankarcharya

Knowing this will a person know his self. Through knowledge alone this darkness of ignorance is dispelled.

Thus the author explains with simple example to show how a person considers himself to be the self.

Sloka 83:

yadvadagnau maNitva.n hi maNau vaa vahnitaa pumaan.h .
tadvadaatmani dehatvaM pashyatyaGYaanayogataH

Meaning : As lamp is seen as a gem, as gem is seen as sparks of fire remaining in an object. In the same way an ignorant person consider the atman as the body.

Explanation: Author gives few more examples of illusions to bring out his analysis that ignorant person is deluded and hence considers body to be atman.

Especially in the darkness of the night , when one sees a lamp glowing stably, he might assume it to be a gem , due to the glow. But on close observance truth will be revealed that it is not gemstone but lamp alone. So also a gem which glows is seen from a far off distance, one might consider it to be some sparks of fire from burnt coal. But when he approaches near to it, he finds the truth.
Similarly, due to lack of understanding of the truth, the nature of the atman, a person thinks he is the body. He Is deluded by his ignorance to assume that he is the insentient body and not the eternal self.

Thus sankaracharya explains about the ignorance of the person which makes him consider himself to be the body.

Hari Aum