Monday, March 17, 2008

Slokas 49 to 53

Hari Aum,

Prostrations at the Lotus feet of AMMA.

Sloka 49:

brahmaNaH sarvabhuutaani jaayante paramaatmanaH .
tasmaadetaani brahmaiva bhavantiityavadhaarayet.h ..

Meaning: Brahman is present in all beings in the world as paramatman. Hence Brahman alone is present in the world.

Explanation: Brahman is the paramatman, the supreme self, present in all beings in the world, the living and non-living. He alone pervades the whole universe. He is the Brahman as mentioned scriptures.
In Gita 15th chapter also Lord Krishna says in similar lines thus :
“Gam avishya cha bhutani dharayami aham ojasahPushnami osadhih sarvah somo bhutva rasatmakaha.” It means brahman has entered the whole universe, and having entered the universe as its essence sustains and nourishes the life on the earth.
As he alone pervades the whole universe, hence he alone exists .There cannot be an duality, or dual notions. Brahman alone exists. One of the attributes of Brahman is “ekam eva adviteeyam” , which is one alone and there is nothing else apart from it.
Thus its proved beyond doubt that everything is Brahman alone, hence there is no scope of presence of duality in the world. Nothing exists apart from the self. One is not different from anything in the universe .It is the indwelling self present in everything in the universe. The cause of the whole world is Brahman alone. He is the substratum of the world.

Sloka 50:
brahmaiva sarvanaamaani ruupaaNi vividhaani cha .
karmaaNyapi samagraaNi bibhartiiti shrutirjagau

Meaning: Brahman is the different forms and shapes , the various actions. He alone supports the whole world. This is as per scriptures.

Explanation: After explaining that whole world is pervaded by Brahman, the author now explains how the Brahman alone is the truth in the entire universe, how Brahman alone is present and nothing else exists as we have seen in the earlier sloka.
The names and forms, the different shapes we see in the world is also Brahman. Everything is verily Brahman. If everything is pervaded by Brahman, then the names and forms we see are also Brahman alone. The forms are different manifestation of the same consciousness. Even as different as all pottery made by the potter is made up of mud alone.
Even all the actions performed by a person are Brahman alone. Brahman supports all the activities in the world, all the various names , forms shapes we see in the world.
The lines of the sloka are as per the gita 15th chapter sloka.
Uttama purusha anyah paramah iti udahrtahYo loka traya avisya bibharti avyayah ishwarah
Here it says that Paramatman alone is responsible for creation and sustenance of the whole world.
As Brahman alone is responsible for the sustainance of the universe , he is alone is the doer and the controller of activities in the world.

Sloka 51:

suvarNaajjayamaanasya suvarNatva.n cha shaashvatam.h .
brahmaNo jaayamaanasya brahmatva.n cha tathaa bhavet.h

Meaning : As all gold ornaments are gold alone, so also all entities born from Brahman are Brahman alone.

Explanation: Author has explained in the earlier slokas that Brahman alone pervades the whole universe. He is the paramatman in all beings and that he creates and sustains the world. Now he explains with an analogy the same truth.
All gold ornaments have different sizes, forms and shapes but all are made of gold alone. All the ornaments are from solid gold alone. They have no existence of their own. A gold smith sees all gold ornaments as gold alone. We may like some ornaments we may not like another, but all are gold alone and the gold smith has the same vision towards all ornaments without distinction.He sees gold in all ornaments. To see all the gold ornaments as gold alone is termed as “kana eka maha buddhi”. The substratum of all gold ornaments is gold alone, so also the substratum of whole world is Brahman alone.
Similarly a jnaani sees every entity in the world as Brahman alone, Even though he sees many forms shapes and sizes , he is ever established in Brahman. To see all being as Brahman alone in the world is termed as “Brahma eka maha buddhi”.
A jnaani always abides in the self and sees his self in everyone. He treats others with love and compassion as he doesn’t see any difference between himself and other beings we perceive in the world.
As per a jnaani, there is nothing apart from his self or Brahman in the world .

Sloka 52:
svalpamatyantara.n kR^itvaa jiivaatmaparamaatmanoH .
yaH santishhThati muuDhaatma bhaya.n tasyaabhibhaashhitam.h

Meaning: Making a small difference between jeevatma and paramatman as a big difference , a ignorant person who is not contented .This creates fear in him.

Explanation: The author in earlier slokas has stressed upon the point that jeevatma and paramatman seem to be different but are the same. In the slokas from 52-55 ,author explains with quotations from brihadaranyaka Upanishad, how duality causes fear in person. He is explaining the consequences of considering once to be limited by the body mind , intellect complex.
If consciousness is removed from jeevatma , there is no existence. Hence jeevatma is chit or consciousness alone. Like the sruthi quotations
“Vadanti tat tatva vidaha tattvam jnaana advaiyam brahma ithi paramatha ithi ,bhagavan ithi shadhyathe”. As per scriptures atman or the supreme consciousness is called by various names and jeevatma is another term only .There are just many names like Brahman,bhagavan or paramatman, for the same consciousness.
Jeevatma once he realizes that he above all the body mind adjuncts , he identifies himself with the supreme self.
Ramana Maharshi in upadesha saram says thus “Isha Jeevayoh Vesha Dhee bhidaah Sat Svabhaavatah Vasthu Kevalam” . Meaning Ishwarah and jeeva are just different names and are sat or consciousness alone, hence they are one entity only. Ishwarah is Sarvagya or all knowing whereas jeeva has limited intellect .Ishwarah is sarvavyapi or all pervading whereas a jeeva is alpavyaapi i .e limited by body mind complex.But we all know that Brahman alone is the truth. So how can any difference persist? Who is the knower and what is to be known when everything is Brahman alone.Hence jeevatma and paramatman are one and the same.

As per sruthi “Dvitiyat vay bhayam bhavarthi”.It means duality is the cause of fear.A moodah or ignorant person only considers jeevatma as totally different from paramatman. He sees the small difference of name as big differences. This results in dual feeling that he is different from paramatman. He thinks that paramatman is the supreme self and everyone is different from that. Thus he sees duality also in the world. He sees many jeevatma’s in the world. This dual notion causes sorrow and sufferings in the world. He possess likes and dislike towards everything in the world. On the other hand a Jnaani identifies himself with the supreme self and is always in a blissful state without fear.
A ignorant person fears to do many activities in the world. He fears to go against powerful people, he fears to go against his parents , even though he is knows what he is doing is correct. Thus our lives are filled with fear every moment. All these are due to dvaita bhavana or Perceiving duality in the world. If we understand that lord alone is the creator and he alone is in everything our fears will vanish. . A person who is always established in the self is ever blissful. A person cannot be blissful if he has fear. Thus knowledge of the ultimate truth, removes all fears.

Thus sankaracharya says that he who perceives himself different from the supreme self a person is plunged into the world of sorrow.

Sloka 53:

yatraaGYaanaadbhavedvaitamitarastatra pashyati .
aatmatvena yadaa sarva.n netarastatra chaaNvapi

Meaning: Where ajnaana or exists, person sees others different from him. Person who sees his atman everywhere does not see anything different from himself.

Explanation: In the earlier sloka sankaracharya explained why a person is caught in fear in the world. Now he explains the reason behind how the fear is created. Also explains a jnaani’s state.
As long as a person perceives duality in the world he is in constant state of fear. Everything is created from Brahman , exists in Brahman and merges into Brahman, knowing this truth a jnaani doesn’t see anything different from his atman. Hence he doesn’t see anything apart from himself. He doesn’t perceive duality .He sees himself in everything. Hence as self alone is present, there is no reason for developing aversion or attraction towards anything in the world, thus he remains a “sthitapragya” , one who is unperturbed under any circumstances. Not an iota of doubt he has about his vision of non-duality.
While a ignorant person , sees duality in the world, each and everything as been different from him. Though both jnaani and ajnaani see the world and names and forms in the world, jnaani knows that everything is one entity and hence isn’t effected. Whereas a ajnnani sees the duality in the world. This causes the fear in him. He gets attached to entities and these attachments later lead to sorrow as everything is temporary in this world .He fears loosing what is dear to him, what he is attached to. A person might like his vehicle so much that daily he cleans it polishes it and maintains well. He desires it to be in perfect shape all the time. Hence he also fears for any damage to the vehicle .He cannot even bear to see small scratches done to the vehicle. so people fear about their possessions, the natural calamities etc.
Ignorance is the cause of duality. Ignorance of the reality of the world , that world is unreal and that the duality perceived , a person is all the time

Thus sankaracharya says that seeing duality only leads to sorrow in the world.

Hari Aum

Slokas 44 to 48

Hari Aum,

Prostrations at the Lotus Feet of AMMA.

Sloka 44:
rajjvaGYaanaatkshaNenaiva yadvadrajjurhi sarpiNii .
bhaati tadvachchitiH saakshaadvishvaakaareNa kevalaa ..

Meaning: For a moment if we forget the rope we perceive the snake .So also a person perceives the world in the consciousness people see the world.

Explanation: In the earlier sloka sankaracharya explained through an analogy the illusory nature of jeeva. Now he explains the illusory nature of the world and the substratum behind it.

For a moment a person forgets what ever he is seeing is rope , immediately he sees snake in place of the rope. Similarly the world is perceived by us , due to ignorance of the substratum of the world being consciousness or brahman. As we do not realize that the essence of all whole world , is the indwelling consciousness principle.
So in order not to get deluded by the world, one should always remember that the substratum of the entire world is nothing but consciousness or Brahman and what ever is perceived is only a name and form which is illusion.
The whole world seems to exist but actually doesn’t really exist. Thus the mithya world is clearly explained. That which is mithya is neither real nor unreal.That which doesn’t exist is asat. That which always exists is sat. World exists for a short period of time we live, hence its neither asat nor sat. One should negate the names and forms seen in the world and assert that Brahman alone is present everywhere. When one negates nama roopam , Brahman as the substratum alone remains. So if substratum of Brahman is present the world exists. World doesn’t exist without Brahman. Hence world is just an illusion in Brahman, the reality being the substratum. Once the illusory nama roopam is not seen, the only entity consciousness is perceived everwhere. This is the state a person attains, after negating nama roopam and asserting that Brahman alone is present in the whole world.

Sloka 45:
upaadaanaM prapaJNchasya brahmaNonyanna vidyate .
tasmaatsarvaprapaJNcho.ayaM brahmaivaasti na chetarat.h ..

Meaning: The material cause of the world is Brahman alone. Hence Brahman pervades the whole world and there is nothing apart from it.

Explanation: we have seen the nature of the Jeeva and world being explained in the earlier slokas. Now the material cause of the world is discussed in this sloka. This helps a seeker , to view everything in the world as Brahman.If we know that pot id made of mud, we wouldn’t see pot different from mud, likewise when we know that Brahman is the substratum of the world, dualities vanish.
Any effect has 2 causes the material cause and the efficient cause. For example for a mud pot the material cause is mud and the efficient cause is the potter. Likewise the material cause as well as the efficient cause of the world is Brahman alone. The names and forms we view are due to the power of maya in Brahman. Maya is the power of Brahman, due to which names and forms are seen and is the material cause of world. But as maya is part of Brahman we can consider that Brahman is the material cause.
As the substratum of the creation is Brahman the whole world is pervaded by Brahman. The whole world is nothing but Brahman alone. This helps a seeker to view the world he perceives as Brahman alone. Understanding the nature of the world and its substratum a person never gets deluded in the world of dualities.

Sloka 46:

vyaapyaavyaapakataa mithyaa sarvamaatmeti shaasanaat.h .
iti GYaate pare tattve bhedasyaavasaraH kutaH ..

Meaning: Pervading entity and entity being pervaded by both are illusion as there only exists atman everywhere. Knowing this great truth what is the necessity of showing the difference between the pervaded entity and the pervading entity.

Explanation: In the earlier sloka sankaracharya spoke about the illusory world and its substratum of Brahman. He has mentioned that world is an illusion in Brahman, the illusion being the effect in the cause of Brahman. In this slokas he contradicts the theory with reasoning.
Inorder to wake up a dreaming person , he should be told that the dream is only an illusion and truth is the waking state. This helps him to attain the waking state.
A person who is woken up needn’t be told about the dream state as dream state doesn’t exist. Once the ignrorance is removed there are no differences perceived. The same logic is used by the author to negate the cause and effect theory.
In reality there is no cause and effect , everything is Brahman alone. The world is not at all present. This is from the perspective of a Jnaani.
But for a person who sees the world ,this wouldn’t appeal , as he sees world as existing, hence the theory of cause and effect is useful. But once he realizes the truth , he doesn’t perceive the world but only Brahman.
Hence there is no entity which pervades the whole universe as mentioned earlier as Brahman and there is no entity being pervaded by the pervading entity i.e the world.
As there exists only ultimate truth of Brahman.
As world is an illusion in Brahman ,hence it really doesn’t exist. So as world is an illusion, there is no necessity of associating a cause to the illusory world, as its not real. Hence Brahman is not a cause of world that doesn’t really exist. Rather Brahman alone exists.

Sloka 47:

shrutyaa nivaarita.n nuuna.n naanaatva.n svamukhena hi .
kathaM bhaaso bhavedanyaH sthite chaadvayakaaraNe ..

Meaning: Sruthi themselves negate duality many many times. So how will the duality exist ? Only the non-dual Brahman exists.

Explanation: As proof to the statement made in the earlier sloka that there is no cause and effect theory and that everything is one entity of nature of consciousness, the author gives reference to the sruthi quotations.
As per sruthi its stated that “Neha nana asthi kincha” Meaning there is no trace of duality whatsoever.
The same point is reiterated in this sloka. As sruti proclaim that there is no duality at all. So how can there be illusionary world in Brahman. It means that there is no duality and only Brahman exists, which is one alone. So how can a person see duality in the world, when the scriptures clearly proclaim that the world is just an illusion. With clear proof from the scriptures and from the experience of the jnaani’s who have followed the path mentioned by the scriptures and perceive the world as Brahman alone, it removes all doubts from the mind of the seeker about the Brahman as the only entity pervading the whole universe.

Sloka 48:

doshho.api vihitaH shrutyaa mR^ityrmR^i.rtyu.n sa gachchhati .
iha pashyati naanaatvaM maayayaa vaJNchito naraH

Meaning : If a person sees duality sruti says that he will be born many many times.
The person who sees duality is deluded by maya.

Explanation: After explaining that nothing exists here but Brahman alone and providing the sruthi quotations to support the same, sankaracharya now mentions the consequences a person would face ,whose sees the duality in the world.
Author warns the about the consequences of not able to view the world as Brahman. According to sruthi, a person gets deluded in the world due to influence of maya , the power of brahman. He sees duality in the world. He sees various names and forms. He thinks the world is permanent. He seeks happiness in the world, as a result his life becomes full of sorrow and keeps running after wordly objects seeking them ,doing actions and thereby accumulating good/bad karmas and being born many times to exhaust the karma. Thus a person getting deluded and will end up in the chain of birth and death. Whereas a person who has the strong conviction, sees no duality in the world , he attains samabhavam, who has attained the state perceives only his self in all and all in his self. Such a person is a liberated soul.
The author warns people of the results of not seeing the world as pervaded by Brahman.
Given the consequences people might put an effort to seek the truth , rather than getting deluded in the world. Any amount of effort in this direction is always beneficial as its like a bank deposit .In the next birth one would start from where he has left in the previous birth.
Thus the author explains the nature of the world , through sruti and yukti and also mentions the consequences of getting deluded in this world.

Hari Aum

Slokas 39 to 43

Hari Aum,

Prostrations at the Lotus feet of AMMA.

Continuing with sankaracharya’s logical analysis of how atman is different from Deham.

Sloka 39:

liN^ga.n chaanekasa.nyukta.n chala.n dR^ishya.n vikaari cha .
avyaapakamasadruupa.n tatkatha.n syaatpumaanayam.h ..

Meaning: Linga shareera is associated with many parts and changes,it is an object and undergoes modifications.It is not all pervading, is insentient and hence cannot be same as the atman.

Explanation: Till now the author is comparing the atman with the sthoola shareera.So anyone can have a doubt that sooksha shareera can be atman, if not the sthoola shareera.To clarify this ,after negating the sthoola shareera , the author now explains about the sookshma shareera qualities, to differentiate the atman from the sookshma shareera.
Sookshma shareera is also called Linga shareera . Jeeva is the reflection of the kutastha in the intellect of the sookshma shareera. Hence sooksha shareera also is called linga shareera or where the atman resides.
Sookshma shareera or subtle body is said to have 17 or 19 parts. The 5 sense organs of smell ,touch,taste,seeing,hearing, 5 organs of action legs,hands,excretion,speech and genitals + 5 pranas prans,apana,samana,udana and vyana + mind+intellect+ego+chittam.
Hence subtle body is said to be associated with many parts. But Brahman is without parts or “niskalo” as we have discuused in earlier slokas.
If we analyse we can understand that We experience the mind as changing ideas,notions etc. Some times we are absent minded, some times we think a lot .This all shows that subtle body is ever changing. But Brahman is “nischalam” or not moving as its all pervading.
It is the object even though its not perceived, as we say that my mind is not working etc.
Hence it is an object and not a subject. Brahman is the subject which perceives all the objects. It is never an object of perception.
It undergoes modifications. We see that some people loose their sight due to some accident . This shows that subtle body undergoes changes. But Brahman is never changing , the I we identify with from birth is the same even after many years.
Subtle body is limited to the adjuncts of the body. But Brahman is all pervading. Once jeeva identifies himself with the kutastha atman , he identifies himself with everything in the universe. For him everything is one and the same consciousness. Mahatma’s reside in such a state and hence treat everyone as his or her self.
Subtle body is asat or insentient. Only if the consciousness exists in the body does a man think and do actions. A dead body doesn’t think. But Brahman is the consciousness principle behind the eyes which see the objects. It is the eye of the eye, the mind behind mind .
So given all these differences how can the subtle body be atman.
Karana shareera is also negated by sankaracharya here.Karana shareera is the body in the deep sleep state. The karana shareera manifests itself as subtle or sthoola shareera. karana shareera cannot be for a longer period in the same state. Negating the subtle and gross bodies also implies negating the karana shareera or cuasal body as causal body cannot be present without the other two. Hence sankaracharya doesn’t negate the causal body. But its indirectly implied that the karana shareera is also different from the atman.
Thus the author clearly proves beyond doubt that all the three shareera’s one experiences is beyond the experiencer , the atman. Hence we cannot say that atman is sthoola,sookshma or karana shareera.

Sloka 40:

eva.n dehadvayaadanya aatmaa purushha IshvaraH .
sarvaatmaa sarvaruupashcha sarvaatiitomahavyayaH

Meaning: Atman is above both the bodies and is the purusha or Iswhara.
He is present in all being in the world,he is present in all forms,he is beyond forms and is without parts.

Explanation: The author concludes the analysis of differentiating the atman from the sthoola, sookshma shareera’s with this sloka. Till now we have seen slokas showing that one is not the body. After clearly the author explains as to how the atman is the body ,a sadhaka would develop a strong conviction that he is not the body.
In this sloka he explains the nature of the atman and concludes the reasoning.
Atman is beyond the gross and subtle bodies. It is called the purusha as explained in the scriptures and also called Iswhara the sustainer of the universe.
Purusha is the essence of the existence in the universe. The indwelling self in all beings. He is also the name and form. Name and forms we see in the world are only illusions, but the substratum of all illusions in Brahman. Hence the illusions are also Brahman. As the water seen in the desert is desert itself. He is beyond the names and forms. As the desert is beyond the waves created in the water seen in the desert. He is all pervading and only reality present. He has no parts , as something with parts changes, but Brahman is changless, hence it has no parts.
Knowing that Brahman alone is present in the whole universe, that alone exists in all beings, the names and forms seen are nothing but Brahman , would remove duality in the world. The cause for sufferings in the world is due to the perception of the dual world. Seeing everything different from us. Hence this knowledge of our very essence of atman being the all pervading Brahman makes us identify with everything in the universe, thus removing bedha bahavana or dual notion.

Sloka 41:

ityaatmadehabhaagena prapaJNchasyaiva satyataa .
yathoktaa tarkashaastreNa tataH kiM purushhaarthataa

Meaning: The atman and body differentiation and the truth of the world that has been reasoned out ,how does it help the people?

Explanation: Sankaracharya has brought out the difference between atman and body and thereby also proving the illusionary nature of the world using reasoning.
Now in the coming slokas he dwells on the “Mithya” aspect of the world. This sloka questioning the significance of the conclusions drawn in the earlier slokas, helps us to understand the world is an illusion.
We have seen through the earlier slokas that two things are proved , that the body is insentient and temporary and so also the world and the only sentient being illumining or making the insentient entities look sentient is Brahman , the substratum of the world.
So there are two parts of the question here.1) How does the differentiation between the atman and the body help a person in this world? . The author proved that the body is temporary ,hence the names and forms in the world are also temporary. So the next question arises as to 2) How does the knowledge that the objects seen in the world are also temporary help a person?
These questions are answered in the next slokas. Thus the author enters into explanation of the illusionary world, in the next few slokas.
Till now we have seen the logical analysis of how the body is temporary and separate of the atman. The benefits from this understanding is explained next.

Sloka 42:

ityaatmadehabhedena dehaatmatva.n nivaaritam.h .
idaanii.n dehabhedasya hyasattva.n sphuTamuchyate

Meaning: Showing that the body and the atman are different the feeling of I am the body is removed. Also it clearly brings out that the body is unreal.

Explanation:nIn this sloka the author explains , the benefit of knowing that one is different from the atman. How this knowledge will help a person in his life.
Once a person knows that he is different from the body, he would treat the body as he would treat his pen, his laptop, meaning he would treat the body as not himself i.e separate from onself, thereby the happiness or sorrow arising due to the body will not be taken as his sufferings by the person. So his happiness sorrow doesn’t depend on the body. As he knows that the body is temporary and it just seems to exist for a short span of time. He has been taking many births and has had many bodies, but his atman is one alone. If a person is suffering from fever , he takes the needed medicines but still if it doesn’t cure soon, he doesn’t bother it. Externally he might appear as suffering, but internally he knows he is not the body, hence is always blissful.
So even when his comforts are less, even though he is injured , he is in pain, he will be blissful ,knowing the true nature of his self.
A person seeks happiness in the world without knowing the real nature of the world, or without giving a thought about the real nature of the world. He thinks that world is permanent and the objects of the world would give him permanent happiness. Hence he is always in pursuit of objects of the world.
As the body made of the pancha bhootas is asat or unreal and the purusha present as atman is the only truth, so also the objects of the world, the names and forms are asat or unreal and that purusha is present everywhere, pervading the entire universe. Once he knows this truth he will not go behind the worldly objects seeking happiness, instead he will be seek happiness inside.
Hence the duality of the world doesn’t delude him and bring him sorrow. Thus a person will be ever blissful. He develops samabhavam, that which is mentioned as the goal of life in Gita by Lord Krishna.A person through this difference of atman and body, realizes the nature of the world, understands the ultimate truth and never gets effected by the world, thereby he has no likes dislikes, no dvandha bhavam, which helps him to achieve samabhavam.Thus the understanding of the difference between body and atman makes him ever rejoice in the blissful nature of his self.

Sloka 43:

chaitanyasyaikaruupatvaadbhedo yukto na karhichit .
jiivata.n cha mR^ishhaa GYeya.n rajjau sarpagrahau yathaa

Meaning: Consciousness is one alone and has no divisions. Jeeva is a illusion similar to the illusion of the snake in the rope.

Explanation: After logical anlalysis of the body ,atman and the world, the author further gives analogies to explains the illusionary nature of the world. In this sloka the author through an analogy of snake and rope explains the perception of the world by ignorant people. Brings out the illusionary nature of the Jeeva.
Jeeva is the reflected consciousness in the intellect, that we all experience as “I”. Jeeva due to ignorance associates himself with body, mind adjuncts. He considers himself to be body. His happiness and sorrow depend on the body and the world.
Purusha or Atman as mentioned in the scriptures is beyond body and mind and is the essence of all the being in the world, Which is only truth in the world.
The author explains that consciousness is devoid of any bedha’s as we discussed earlier, the swagata ,sajateeya and vijateeya bedha’s and is one alone. So among jeeva and atman only one can be real and the other illusionary. As the snake is only a illusion in the rope, so also jeeva is only an illusion in the atman or purusha.
Once the jeeva come out of the ignorance and knows that he is the all pervading purusha ,he becomes Brahman,the fundamental principle of the entire universe. Until a person considers the rope as a snake he is scared. The very moment he realizes that snake doesn’t exist, his fear vanishes. So also when the jeeva realizes that he is the atman ,once he comes out of the notion that he is the body, once he leaves all the body consciousness behind, he becomes blissful. He always rejoices in the self.
Thus the author brings out the illusionary nature of the Jeeva, which is the cause of sufferings in the world, due to perception of dualities.

Hari Aum