Prostrations at the Lotus feet of AMMA.
brahmaNaH sarvabhuutaani jaayante paramaatmanaH .
tasmaadetaani brahmaiva bhavantiityavadhaarayet.h ..
Meaning: Brahman is present in all beings in the world as paramatman. Hence Brahman alone is present in the world.
Explanation: Brahman is the paramatman, the supreme self, present in all beings in the world, the living and non-living. He alone pervades the whole universe. He is the Brahman as mentioned scriptures.
In Gita 15th chapter also Lord Krishna says in similar lines thus :
“Gam avishya cha bhutani dharayami aham ojasahPushnami osadhih sarvah somo bhutva rasatmakaha.” It means brahman has entered the whole universe, and having entered the universe as its essence sustains and nourishes the life on the earth.
As he alone pervades the whole universe, hence he alone exists .There cannot be an duality, or dual notions. Brahman alone exists. One of the attributes of Brahman is “ekam eva adviteeyam” , which is one alone and there is nothing else apart from it.
Thus its proved beyond doubt that everything is Brahman alone, hence there is no scope of presence of duality in the world. Nothing exists apart from the self. One is not different from anything in the universe .It is the indwelling self present in everything in the universe. The cause of the whole world is Brahman alone. He is the substratum of the world.
brahmaiva sarvanaamaani ruupaaNi vividhaani cha .
karmaaNyapi samagraaNi bibhartiiti shrutirjagau
Meaning: Brahman is the different forms and shapes , the various actions. He alone supports the whole world. This is as per scriptures.
Explanation: After explaining that whole world is pervaded by Brahman, the author now explains how the Brahman alone is the truth in the entire universe, how Brahman alone is present and nothing else exists as we have seen in the earlier sloka.
The names and forms, the different shapes we see in the world is also Brahman. Everything is verily Brahman. If everything is pervaded by Brahman, then the names and forms we see are also Brahman alone. The forms are different manifestation of the same consciousness. Even as different as all pottery made by the potter is made up of mud alone.
Even all the actions performed by a person are Brahman alone. Brahman supports all the activities in the world, all the various names , forms shapes we see in the world.
The lines of the sloka are as per the gita 15th chapter sloka.
Uttama purusha anyah paramah iti udahrtahYo loka traya avisya bibharti avyayah ishwarah
Here it says that Paramatman alone is responsible for creation and sustenance of the whole world.
As Brahman alone is responsible for the sustainance of the universe , he is alone is the doer and the controller of activities in the world.
suvarNaajjayamaanasya suvarNatva.n cha shaashvatam.h .
brahmaNo jaayamaanasya brahmatva.n cha tathaa bhavet.h
Meaning : As all gold ornaments are gold alone, so also all entities born from Brahman are Brahman alone.
Explanation: Author has explained in the earlier slokas that Brahman alone pervades the whole universe. He is the paramatman in all beings and that he creates and sustains the world. Now he explains with an analogy the same truth.
All gold ornaments have different sizes, forms and shapes but all are made of gold alone. All the ornaments are from solid gold alone. They have no existence of their own. A gold smith sees all gold ornaments as gold alone. We may like some ornaments we may not like another, but all are gold alone and the gold smith has the same vision towards all ornaments without distinction.He sees gold in all ornaments. To see all the gold ornaments as gold alone is termed as “kana eka maha buddhi”. The substratum of all gold ornaments is gold alone, so also the substratum of whole world is Brahman alone.
Similarly a jnaani sees every entity in the world as Brahman alone, Even though he sees many forms shapes and sizes , he is ever established in Brahman. To see all being as Brahman alone in the world is termed as “Brahma eka maha buddhi”.
A jnaani always abides in the self and sees his self in everyone. He treats others with love and compassion as he doesn’t see any difference between himself and other beings we perceive in the world.
As per a jnaani, there is nothing apart from his self or Brahman in the world .
svalpamatyantara.n kR^itvaa jiivaatmaparamaatmanoH .
yaH santishhThati muuDhaatma bhaya.n tasyaabhibhaashhitam.h
Meaning: Making a small difference between jeevatma and paramatman as a big difference , a ignorant person who is not contented .This creates fear in him.
Explanation: The author in earlier slokas has stressed upon the point that jeevatma and paramatman seem to be different but are the same. In the slokas from 52-55 ,author explains with quotations from brihadaranyaka Upanishad, how duality causes fear in person. He is explaining the consequences of considering once to be limited by the body mind , intellect complex.
If consciousness is removed from jeevatma , there is no existence. Hence jeevatma is chit or consciousness alone. Like the sruthi quotations
“Vadanti tat tatva vidaha tattvam jnaana advaiyam brahma ithi paramatha ithi ,bhagavan ithi shadhyathe”. As per scriptures atman or the supreme consciousness is called by various names and jeevatma is another term only .There are just many names like Brahman,bhagavan or paramatman, for the same consciousness.
Jeevatma once he realizes that he above all the body mind adjuncts , he identifies himself with the supreme self.
Ramana Maharshi in upadesha saram says thus “Isha Jeevayoh Vesha Dhee bhidaah Sat Svabhaavatah Vasthu Kevalam” . Meaning Ishwarah and jeeva are just different names and are sat or consciousness alone, hence they are one entity only. Ishwarah is Sarvagya or all knowing whereas jeeva has limited intellect .Ishwarah is sarvavyapi or all pervading whereas a jeeva is alpavyaapi i .e limited by body mind complex.But we all know that Brahman alone is the truth. So how can any difference persist? Who is the knower and what is to be known when everything is Brahman alone.Hence jeevatma and paramatman are one and the same.
As per sruthi “Dvitiyat vay bhayam bhavarthi”.It means duality is the cause of fear.A moodah or ignorant person only considers jeevatma as totally different from paramatman. He sees the small difference of name as big differences. This results in dual feeling that he is different from paramatman. He thinks that paramatman is the supreme self and everyone is different from that. Thus he sees duality also in the world. He sees many jeevatma’s in the world. This dual notion causes sorrow and sufferings in the world. He possess likes and dislike towards everything in the world. On the other hand a Jnaani identifies himself with the supreme self and is always in a blissful state without fear.
A ignorant person fears to do many activities in the world. He fears to go against powerful people, he fears to go against his parents , even though he is knows what he is doing is correct. Thus our lives are filled with fear every moment. All these are due to dvaita bhavana or Perceiving duality in the world. If we understand that lord alone is the creator and he alone is in everything our fears will vanish. . A person who is always established in the self is ever blissful. A person cannot be blissful if he has fear. Thus knowledge of the ultimate truth, removes all fears.
Thus sankaracharya says that he who perceives himself different from the supreme self a person is plunged into the world of sorrow.
yatraaGYaanaadbhavedvaitamitarastatra pashyati .
aatmatvena yadaa sarva.n netarastatra chaaNvapi
Meaning: Where ajnaana or exists, person sees others different from him. Person who sees his atman everywhere does not see anything different from himself.
Explanation: In the earlier sloka sankaracharya explained why a person is caught in fear in the world. Now he explains the reason behind how the fear is created. Also explains a jnaani’s state.
As long as a person perceives duality in the world he is in constant state of fear. Everything is created from Brahman , exists in Brahman and merges into Brahman, knowing this truth a jnaani doesn’t see anything different from his atman. Hence he doesn’t see anything apart from himself. He doesn’t perceive duality .He sees himself in everything. Hence as self alone is present, there is no reason for developing aversion or attraction towards anything in the world, thus he remains a “sthitapragya” , one who is unperturbed under any circumstances. Not an iota of doubt he has about his vision of non-duality.
While a ignorant person , sees duality in the world, each and everything as been different from him. Though both jnaani and ajnaani see the world and names and forms in the world, jnaani knows that everything is one entity and hence isn’t effected. Whereas a ajnnani sees the duality in the world. This causes the fear in him. He gets attached to entities and these attachments later lead to sorrow as everything is temporary in this world .He fears loosing what is dear to him, what he is attached to. A person might like his vehicle so much that daily he cleans it polishes it and maintains well. He desires it to be in perfect shape all the time. Hence he also fears for any damage to the vehicle .He cannot even bear to see small scratches done to the vehicle. so people fear about their possessions, the natural calamities etc.
Ignorance is the cause of duality. Ignorance of the reality of the world , that world is unreal and that the duality perceived , a person is all the time
Thus sankaracharya says that seeing duality only leads to sorrow in the world.